Teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge.
In the second year of the project (2010-2011), participating teachers took assessments to measure their ability to choose appropriate strategies and to recognize and diagnose common student errors.
Classroom pedagogy (instructional practices) is one of the most important yet least understood factors in student achievement. This study sought to demystify effective teaching practices and provide insights into teacher evaluation and professional development. Dr. Robert Marzano has identified nine teaching strategies that have the highest impact on student learning:
1. Identifying similarities and differences
2. Summarizing and note taking
3. Reinforcing effort and providing recognition
4. Homework and practice
5. Nonlinguistic representations
6. Cooperative learning
7. Setting objectives and providing feedback
8. Generating and testing hypotheses
9. Cues, questions, and advance organizers:
Student perceptions of the classroom instructional environment.
All students in participating teachers’ classrooms completed surveys about their experience in the classroom and their teachers’ ability to engage them in the course material. Recent education research has begun to explore whether students’ perceptions of the teaching they experience help in predicting how much those students learn.